Porcelain stoneware

Porcelain stoneware

Fine porcelain stoneware is a compact, resistant ceramic product, made by the high-temperature firing of special clays ground into extremely fine particles.

This product’s excellent technical characteristics and appearance have made it the most widely used material for indoor and outdoor floor and wall coverings and pavings, in any application context.

Francesco CamelliniChief Technical Officer discusses porcelain stoneware and its evolutions over time, with a focus on the Kronos Ceramiche product offering.

BENEFITS OF PORCELAIN STONEWARE

Thermal shock resistance.

Frost resistance.

Fire resistance.

Resistant to stains, acid and
chemicals

Resistant to corrosion from salt.

Resistant to attack from mould,
moss and verdigris treatments.

Resistant to florescence and
formation of dark halos.

Durable: withstands heavy foot
and wheel traffic.

Hypoallergenic. No VOC.

Easy to sterilize.

Eco-friendly maintenance.

Virtually no maintenance

Recyclable and ecological.

Slip resistance.

Dry, wet, and submerged
applications.

High breaking load.

Easy to clean.

Available in a broad range
of colors/styles.

Outdoor application +
coordinated indoors + special
pieces such as pool edges and
steps.

Exceptional life cycle-cost =
best value.

Colors remains
unchanged over time.

APPEARANCE CHARACTERISTICS

The advent of new production and digital decoration processes has enabled the creation of complete collections with looks that resemble the natural material more and more closely.
Kronos Ceramiche offers a wide range of tiles with a large assortment of sizes and thicknesses available in the various wood, concrete, stone and metal looks.

FINISHES

Products are available in the various finishes:

Natural: surface in its natural state, with its original appearance
Waxed: surface with a slight glossy wax patina
Honed: surface which is processed to make it smoother and shinier
Lux: the surface layer is polished to make it extremely smooth and shiny
Grip: structured surface to make the product anti-slip

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

The standards define ceramic tiles by means of a series of characteristics and tests performed to ensure compliance with group B1A; as well as confirming classification as porcelain stoneware, the values obtained determine the real quality of the product. The following are the main headings included in our technical data sheets:

SURFACE QUALITY – ISO 10545-2
95% of tiles must be free from defects.

WATER ABSORPTION – ISO 10545-3
Absorption is the extent to which water is able to penetrate a product.
To be classified as porcelain stoneware, a material must have water absorption of 0.5% or less.
All Kronos Ceramiche tiles have a value of less than 0.04%.

BREAKING STRENGTH – ISO 10545-4
Breaking strength is a parameter that determines the load a tile is able to support without breaking.
The modulus of rupture is expressed in Newton.
Tile thickness ≥ 7.5 mm, must be at least 1300 Newton
Tile thickness < 7.5 mm, must be at least 770 Newton;

IMPACT RESISTANCE – ISO 10545-5
Impact resistance is the ability of a tile’s surface to withstand the dropping of a body onto it without showing irreversible changes.
In the test, a steel ball is dropped onto the tile from a set height.
The height to which the ball bounces is measured in order to establish the coefficient of restitution, which provides a value which indicates the product’s elastic behaviour.
There are no compulsory values, but the standard provides a benchmark value of at least 0.55.

RESISTANCE TO DEEP ABRASION FOR COLOURBODY TILES – ISO 10545-6
Abrasion resistance is the resistance of the tile’s surface to the wearing effect of specific bodies or surfaces in contact with it.
The abrasive action applied in the test removes material from the surface.
The maximum volume removed must be 175 mm3;

RESISTANCE TO SURFACE ABRASION FOR GLAZED TILES – ISO 10545-7
Unlike unglazed tiles, for glazed tiles a surface abrasion process is simulated by means of a number of wear cycles of increasing intensity.
A PEI abrasion resistance rating is assigned on the basis of visual assessment after the test:
PEI 0: Very low resistance to abrasion.
Wall tiles only and unsuitable for use on floors;
PEI I:very light-wear areas without abrasive dirt, such as bedrooms or bathrooms;
PEI II: moderate traffic areas without abrasive dirt, such as studies and living-rooms;
PEI III: rooms with moderate traffic and surface abrasion such as hallways and kitchens;
Ideal tiles for use throughout the home;
PEI IV: high abrasion resistance.
Perfect products for locations with heavy traffic such as bars, restaurants, offices and shops;
PEI V: very high abrasion resistance.
Ideal for locations subject to very heavy traffic such as shopping centres.

COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION – ISO 10545-8
The test supplies the value of the tile’s coefficient of thermal expansion in response to changes in temperature from room temperature to 100°C.
Although no benchmark value is set, this parameter is very important in the conditions involved in some architectural projects.

RESISTANCE TO THERMAL SHOCK – ISO 10545-9
Resistance to thermal shock is the ability of the tile’s surface to show no visible changes in response to considerable thermal shocks.
The test is performed through various cycles from 15° C to 145° C.
There must be no visible changes to the ceramic product at the end of the test.

FROST RESISTANCE – ISO 10545-12
Frost resistance measures the response of a ceramic tile exposed to the action of frost in humid conditions at temperatures below 0°C.
The test exposes the product to 100 freeze/thaw cycles, and it must show no damage due to the increase in the volume of the water it contains.

RESISTANCE TO CHEMICALS – ISO 10545-13
Resistance to chemicals is the ability of the tile’s surface to withstand contact with aggressive chemicals at room temperature with no changes.
The test involves the use of various chemical test solutions and the results are obtained are as follows:

  • AMMONIUM CHLORIDE / SODIUM HYPOCHORITE:
    UA (nessun effetto visibile) – UB (effects visible on edges) – UC (effects visible on sawn and non-sawn edges and on the face of the tile)
  • L SOLUTIONS:
    ULA (no visible effect) – ULB (effects visible on edges) – ULC (effects visible on sawn and non-sawn edges and on the face of the tile)
  • H SOLUTIONS:
    UHA (nessun effetto visibileno visible effect) – UHB (effects visible on edges) – UHC (effects visible on sawn and non-sawn edges and on the face of the tile)

RESISTANCE TO STAINS – ISO 10545-14:
Resistance to stains determines the tile’s properties in this respect.
The test is performed by leaving a staining product on the tile for 24 hours; the quality class obtained depends on the product which has to be used to remove the stain completely.

Class 5: stain is removed with hot water.
Class 4: stain is removed with a weak commercial cleaning agent.
Class 3: stain is removed with a strong commercial cleaning agent.
Class 2: stain is removed using solvent, such as acetone.

FIRE RESISTANCE – EN 13501-1
Fire resistance defines the material’s behaviour and reaction in case of fire.
Porcelain stoneware is classified in class A1, typical of non-combustible products.

SLIP RESISTANCE – DIN 51130
R slip resistance is determined by means of the maximum angle of inclination at which a person walking in standard footwear on an inclined surface impregnated with a lubricant is able to avoid slipping.

R9: Slip angle ≥ 6° – ≤ 10°
R10: Slip angle ≥ 10° – ≤ 19°
R11: Slip angle ≥ 19° – ≤ 27°
R12: Slip angle ≥ 27° – ≤ 35°

ABC SLIP RESISTANCE – DIN 51097

ABC slip resistance is determined by means of the maximum angle of inclination at which a person walking barefoot on an inclined surface impregnated with a soapy agent is able to avoid slipping.

A: Slip angle ≥ 12°
B: Slip angle ≥ 18°
C: Slip angle ≥ 24°

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